Globalization Perspective on Tourism and Hospitality
Globalization is the integration of different societies, cultures and economies so that people from these diverse areas can work together or have some form of link in a number of things that they do. Globalization takes many forms and it can be witnessed in business and general ways of life of people in various countries. It has also led to an increased international understanding between countries, hence world peace and co-existence. Under the business sector, the hospitality and tourism industry has also benefitted a great deal from the increased globalization. Different countries have their own unique experiences from the aspect of Globalization. This paper will focus on the differences that are perceived between the United States, Switzerland and Italy from a globalization perspective within the hospitality and tourism framework.
Tourism has become one of the largest industries in the world. In 1984, international tourist arrivals were above 300million. This was the representative of the total value of the global tourism industry which was above $100 billion for the first time (Knowles et al., 2004). Twenty two years later, the sector generated 10.3 percent of the World’s Gross Domestic Product. The tourism industry was also responsible for the provision of 234 million jobs which accounted for 8.2 percent of total world employment (Knowles et al., 2004). This trend has continued with the general income that is received from the tourism industry increasing every year. Although the industry has been faced be some setbacks, it still has a leading and dynamic role in global growth.
With the development of globalization, many countries are increasing the scope of their activities. In business, globalization has seen an increase in the amount of profits that companies make as well as general diversity. The Hospitality and Tourism sector has not been left behind with the prospect of globalization. There are many changes that have occurred in this industry as a result of globalization (Knowles et al., 2004). For a country to determine the benefits that they have had from the advent of global tourism, it must look at both the direct and indirect benefits that it has achieved from tourism. The direct benefit is the obvious increase in income from the tourism industry (Knowles et al., 2004). On the other hand, the indirect benefit is the one that is associated with other beneficiaries of the tourist’s money, such as the farmers and factories that supply food and drinks to hotels and restaurants, retail stores, banks and many other individuals or organizations that benefit by the development of tourism.
Placed among the leading countries in tourism in the world, the United States, Switzerland and Italy have had some experiences with regard to the ever growing advent of globalization of tourism. These countries have experienced the development of globalization of tourism in different ways that serve to work for the people that they deal with. This is what keeps these countries at the top when it comes to development in tourism.
Focusing on Italy, it is one of the countries that attract a great deal of tourists from all over the world. This is due to the vast services that are offered in the capital city, Rome. With globalization, there is an increase in the use of technology and this becomes advantageous for Italy. There are online services that can be accessed from all over the world, that provide the potential tourists with nearly all the knowledge that they need (Babalola, 2011). This includes all the sites that can be visited and also information on how one can visit various sites for less amounts of money. The Rome travel tourist office also provides information on how to get from one city to another and the means of travel that are in place. Such information puts the potential tourists at peace since they are confident of the area that they intend to visit even though it is miles away. One can even reserve a room online and also find information on other accommodation options that are available such as the renting of apartments to ensure more privacy to the tourists in case it is desired.
Once the accommodation and guide on how to move from the airport to the city are provided, the ways in which the city can be viewed are then put in place. The tourism sector in Italy is so much developed and one cannot see all the sites in one day. Proper planning is required and this once again solved by the introduction and development of globalization (Babalola, 2011). One can still decide on the places and mode of tour that they will take online. There are walking tours, where different routes that are followed will be a showcase of different sites. There are also options of a private Rome tour, Vatican tour and a Pompeii tour. There is also the option of seeing the city through Rome books and bus tour to the countryside and the rest of Italy.
Earlier, tourism was being taken as an afterthought after many people did not make it to their dream careers; however, there are several courses being offered in Italy related to Tourism so that people can take it as a profession. There is a program for graduates with a passion for tourism that take Master of Tourism at a managerial level (Babalola, 2011). People in this class are colleagues from all over the world who bring techniques that are in place in their individual countries making Italy one of the long standing successful tourism destinations in the world.
The United States thrives too as a tourist destination following the development of globalization, but in a different way from Italy. The United States is one of the world’s leading economies, with this in place, there are a large number of investors from other countries in the United States. One of the sectors that have been greatly invested in is the hotel industry. The managers of most of these hotels are not from the United States (Knowles et al., 2004). However, to keep with the ever increasing competition, they come up with sales that are promoted as far as their home countries and this increases the number of tourists that visit the United States. This is all due to the development of globalization. The desire to learn other people’s culture that came up with globalization has also seen a growth in the number of Tourists in the United States. There are visits to amusement parks such as Disney world and throughout the world, there are people that travel to see the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution in the United States (Peric, 2005).
Switzerland has been known to have a large number of health tourists. The country is known to provide euthanasia for non-citizens. This people visit Switzerland as tourists but they are from countries that do not accept this but it is done in Switzerland. This is something that would not have been done earlier, but it is possible with globalization. A diverse range of recreational facilities is the other factor that makes Switzerland a hub of tourists. There are many hiking and skiing events around the many mountains and valleys such as the Alps. With increasing globalization, people do not nowadays talk of how much they have made but rather the places that they have visited and the events that they have attended. Switzerland provides a large number of people with the opportunity for such events (Peric, 2005). One of the most popular places is the Interlaken in the Oberland region that is visited by many people all through the year. There are also a number of breathtaking sceneries that can be visited. These features make Switzerland one of the most visited countries in the world. There are also a vast number of hotels that have friendly prices that increase the number of tourists who visit Switzerland (Peric, 2005).
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