There are seven major sectors which have greatly contributed to the greenhouse gas emissions and they include the energy supply, forestry, industry, agriculture, transport, residential and commercial buildings and waste and waste water. Green house gas, (GHG) is the kind of gas available in the atmosphere that usually absorbs as well as emits the radiation which is within the range of the thermal infrared. This brings up the greenhouse effect and examples of such gases include the carbon dioxide, ozone, water vapor, methane and the nitrous oxide, (Canadell et al, 2007, page 1). The GHG should be controlled to reduce the adverse effects which could result from their effects.

The effect is due to their effect on the earth’s temperature. Due to the development of many industries in the world especially in the Fremantle city, there has been an increase in the burning of fossils which have contributed to the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Despite the reuptake of carbon dioxide back to the atmosphere during the carbon cycle, other ways such as the burning of coal, wood, oil and natural gases, carbon dioxide levels has greatly increased in the atmosphere, (Canadell et al, 2007, page 1).

GHG could be from many sources such as decomposition processes as the result of microbial activities, methane emissions especially from landfills, decay of the landfill carbon containing substances which are due to chemical and biochemical processes. Carbon dioxide and methane which are GHG contributes to the climate changes as well as global warming. Due to the climatic changes, the there are also the reduction in GHG emissions which later on contributes to the impact of climate change, (UNEP, 2010, page13).

Other causes of increased carbon dioxide are the deforestation as most of the plants retake the carbon dioxide while big and not as compared to the seedlings. Due to this, reforestation is encouraged to ensure that the carbon dioxide level is maintained. Some other sources are the wood, paper and other materials which are incorporated in the waste materials. Such materials use up the carbon dioxide in the plants and the soil after some time and which may affect the carbon dioxide levels in its reduction over a given period of time. This reduction is a best indicator as different consequences of different options are reduced. This would be of help as the severity of the climatic changes will have been reduced, (UNEP, 2010, page 13).

The carbon dioxide levels in Fremantle city are mainly from the consumption of petroleum. In most developing countries, there are some of the industries which use petroleum instead of electricity and in such cases, the pollution and addition of the GHG gasses to the atmosphere is at a high rate. Due to these effects, the Fremantle city has opted for the buying of some of the offsets which are greenhouse friendly in order to reduce the carbon dioxide levels by making the city carbon dioxide neutral, (City of Fremantle, 2009, page 2).

Other sources of the carbon dioxide in the Fremantle city are as a result of business travel where the transport fuels are burning, waste collections, use of domestic gasses and transport fuels. The petroleum generators are also major contributors of the increased levels of carbon dioxide. In the city depot, there are the diesel and petroleum storage tanks which are the major sources of fuel consumed in the city. Some of the offsets the city has been purchasing are the BP Global Choice and the SMRC which has enabled them to get rid of some good amounts of the carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere, (City of Fremantle, 2009, page 2). The city has developed strategies to reduce the emissions which include the residual emission offset, the adoption of clean energy sources, making energy consumption very little as they can and taking measurements on the emissions which has contributes to their success in reducing GHG emissions, (City of Fremantle, 2009, page 1).

The increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide has several effects which include global warming, which is a severe increase in the temperatures. This definitely leads to the destruction of various processes in the environment. The warming brings about the shortening of the world glaciers which lengthens or shortens as per the cooling and the warming trends. The atmospheric temperature is mainly caused or regulated by the sun n and also by the effect of the green house which is mainly caused by the water vapor. The major green house water vapor/gas warms the earth while the minor gases which include the carbon dioxide are of very little effect, (Arthur, 2008, page 1).

On the other hand, the atmospheric carbon dioxide is of great advantage as it nourishes the plants. The higher the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the higher is the rate of growth of the plants. In some cases, the increased temperature which is an effect of the increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also contributes to the increases plant growth. The compositions in which carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere include four gigatons per year. The industrial consumption of such carbon dioxide per annum is eight gigatons which would be through burning of oil, coal, or in the cement production, (Arthur, 2008, page 1).

Another source of carbon dioxide which contributes little to the carbon dioxide amount in the atmosphere is the exhaling and about 0.6 gigatons are released. The ocean surface also contains about 1,000 gigatons where as the vegetation; non-living organic matter and the soil contain 2,000 gigatons. The deep waters contain 38,000 gigatons. In every year, there are specific amounts in which the sources of the carbon dioxide exchanges with the atmosphere. This contributes to the increased carbon dioxide concentration to the atmosphere, (Arthur, 2008, page 2).

The climatic changes due to the increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are due to the effect of increased temperatures. This brings about the effect of the glaciers shortening and increases in the rainfalls especially in the US which has reduced the tornados. The severity of the Atlantic hurricanes has also reduced due to the effect of the increase in the hydrocarbon use. The effect of the green house magnifies the warming of the earth due to the solar effect. The GHG forms a layer in the atmosphere which decreases the terrestrial thermal infrared radiation from escaping to the atmosphere, (Arthur, 2008, page 4).

Increase in the amount of carbon dioxide leads to the increase of the input of the radiative energy to the atmosphere of the earth. There are two hypotheses which describe the response of the atmosphere where it’s believed that due to the amplification of the carbon dioxide by the water vapor it causes increase in temperature but the other hypothesis is that the increase in the carbon dioxide has very slight effect on the temperature changes. These hypotheses are based on the slight increase in the temperature compared to the initial which is usually caused by the carbon dioxide and the magnification of the temperature increase which would be as a result of more water vapor due to evaporation, which is a strong GHG, (Arthur, 2008, page 5).

The factors which has contribute to the increase of the GHG effect due to the industrial processes include the economic problems in some countries especially the developing ones as it is the petroleum which is mainly used as a source of energy which has several effects including pollution. The national networking can be a good solution to this as it can create awareness of the effects of activities such as increases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which would be a method of imparting knowledge to the people, (UNEP, 2010, page 49).

In many places, the people are still using the wood as a source of energy and which has been a contributor of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This could be out of knowledge or on the basis of culture. The result is global warming which would adversely affect the processes in the world. The locals are the most users of wood and also in order to acquire such wood, there would be the cutting down of the trees. This could be based on a society where you find that they are chief producers and distributors of wood to the other societies. They may cut without replacing them and as a result, the carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere is very high affecting the entire region and the world at large, (UNEP, 2010, page 49).

Some people carry out some activities without the enough knowledge like the application of fertilizers in agriculture, which leads to the increased nitrous oxide gas and which is a GHG. This also contributes to the effects of global warming as a result of increased temperatures in the world. Other processes would be the practice of the paddy rice farming, landfill emissions which would be vented and the manure management and the enteric fermentation of the livestock. These processes constitutes to the increase of methane gas in the atmosphere increasing the GHG concentrations, (Canadell et al, 2007, page 2).

The GHG effect is largely contributed to by the water vapor amount. This amount is depended on the climatic cover on the region at given times. With the presence of the clear skies, the water vapor accounts 36%-66% and for the cloudy conditions it accounts for 66%-85%. This is depends on a region and the human activities doesn’t have any effect to it. Since the people have little or no effect on the water vapor, then some regions are very well and if the other methods of reducing the effect if the GHG are considered then the effect would be greatly reduced, (Canadell et al, 2007, page 2).

The major factors which contribute to the increase of the waste release from the industry are mainly the cost. This has been brought upon by the governments which in most countries have been defending the economy of the country from declining or in ear of poverty. The economic concern is given much concern forgetting the social and environmental issues. There are some regulations which have been put forth by various governments in different countries which would fight against such behaviors of neglecting the environment. Changes have then been made both in the industries and in the transport areas renovated to ensure that there is the reduction of the waste release from the vehicles and the entire region is decarbonized, (Bottrill, 2011, page 2).

The other major factor is time which has brought about great contribution to the emission of the GHG gasses in the atmosphere. This is because, there comes sometimes when development has not fully been achieved and it’s in such times when the government relies on the other sources of energy which are of effect to the environment. The generation of a low carbon society is always the best level in which the whole world can enjoy in it. Within a given time the government is able to understand the benefits of keeping the climate clean and from the addition of excess dangerous gasses which could be of adverse effects to the environment. Due to this, the governments have adopted various strategies to deal with these problems and reduce the emissions, (Bottrill, 2011, page 2).

The third factor which has contributed to the increase of the GHG in the atmosphere is the neglect to consider the environment as our own place of living and how we should make it much safer for living. To reduce this, the buildings should be improved and made energy efficient which, buy the renewable electricity and generators which are biodiesel in nature. Hybrid cars can also be adopted especially in the music industries. With these innovations, the country can be better placed and miles away regarding the conservation of the environment from the GHG. These three factors are the most common in our countries and hence the effects, (Bottrill, 2011, page 6).

The three factors the cost, time and the neglect has worked hand in hand in affecting the entire process of GHG emissions. Due to lack of enough funds, the various countries have opted for other sources of energy which includes the burning of coal, use of petroleum oils in generators especially in businesses and also in the transport department. As a result, such countries have led to the increase in the carbon dioxide which is a minor gas to the atmosphere and hence the side effects to the environment such as climate change and global warming, (Bottrill, 2011, page 2).

Whenever such changes have been noticed, at first there is the neglect which then leads to the destruction of organisms as a result of increased temperatures. It could take much time before noticing this and which due to lack of enough funds to cater for it; it takes much time to fix the problem. The result is destruction in the environment with other harmful effects which are as a result of increased GHG in the atmosphere, (Bottrill, 2011, page 3).


            Climate change is a problem which involves collective actions. As a result the approaches to reduce it should be multi strategies and multi factors which collectively can reduce the levels of carbon dioxide in the environment. The various governments should make permanent decisions which would be the way to a healthy and comfortable environment. They should reach out to the people in various societies and create awareness of the carbon dioxide reduction strategies.

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