Occupational hazard

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Processing plants due to their nature and complexity of their processing activities are regarded as the most hazardous organizations. It is known as the number one cause of deaths of Australian workers, costing many organizations thousands of dollars for compensation. This has therefore forced the organizational manager not only to provide the required health and safety measures but to go an extra mile through training sessions to equip the workers with safety awareness skills as well as promoting vigilance among them. These measures will not only protect the organizations welfare but also the worker and respective family’s welfare. A case study of a recent accident by a fork lift which caused a puncture of a 55 gallon drum leading to s pillage of a lethal liquid raw material will exploit in details all what entails in occupational hazards and its management


After the emergency radio call all the windows and ventilation were opened followed by the emergency door. From the uncertainty of the lethality of the spilt liquid (s) workers working within 40 feet radius of the incident point were evacuated and since power was disconnected  it was replaced by a battery cell which was emergency tough to prevent the risk of fire in case the liquid was flammable. Fire extinguishers were kept on stand by, the emergency response team and the remaining workers a distance from the incident point were provided with masks to protect themselves in case the vapor observed was lethal (Desmond, 2006).Store attendant in the production plant was ordered to provide the record of all the liquids in the store, chemical composition and their hazard potential. In terms of toxic levels,

It was discovered that the strong acids and bases present were corrosive to an extent that they were dangerous when inhaled and could corrode the drum containing the flammable liquid which was already lying on the floor and therefore called for immediate evacuation of all the remaining workers in the plant. On using acid and base detectors, it ruled out the presence of a base so the chances were that the liquid was either a flammable or an acid. Acids are known to be very toxic their lethality ranging from body tissue corrosion to bone and metal corrosion for example in the case of hydrofluoric acid. They are not commonly flammable but they are known for their combustion if they come into contact with other chemicals.


Flammable liquids are known for not only catching fire but also igniting the fire themselves when in certain conditions. Their lethal level is inversely proportional to their density burning with a loud explosion extending to a large area within no time. It was only the emergency team that was allowed to be there and all were advised to have their gas masks and fire proof clothing on. The fallen drum containing the flammable liquid was carefully lifted using an electromagnetic enhanced pulley and was first confirmed to be leak proof. It was only the drum ruptured by the forklift which was leaking, consequently confirmed that there existed only one liquid on the floor and a laboratory test confirmed it as concentrated sulfuric acid (Desmond, 2006).

The recommended sodium hydroxide alkali neutralizer was administered and the work place was confirmed safe. Injuries and deaths experienced in the work place as a result of accidents are known to be the most painful loss to the worker’s relatives and friends and therefore a lot of care and vigilance is required to prevent these accidents from happening. These accidents may lead to exposure of lethal chemicals in the environment which can lead to both short term and long term negative environmental impacts. Hazardous substances can range from gases, solid, liquids or even radiations for example those in the category of  non biodegradable lethal substances (Desmond, 2006).



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Working environment

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The current 21 st century’s world is characterized by rapid changing of the nature of a working environment which therefore requires highly skilled, flexible and knowledgeable workers who are adoptive to rapid changes. This therefore deems staff training and development a necessary step as a strategy in management.  The key responsibility of any manager is to develop the staff in a way that it will encourage their growth and career development. This research will show you how this process is a shared responsibility between the organization, the manager and the employee. it will also attempt to  out lay  the various categories of training according to  their respective organizational levels  that is; management, career development , basic skills, technical skills,  professional skills and supervisory skills.        ( Martins, 2010).

From the data collected, from different organizations, reasons for employee training which in this case include training them about a specific concept or skill, part of the overall professional programme, piloting the operation of a new development management and to bench mark the status of improvement. Topics necessary for training commonly are: communication, computer skills, diversity and ethics whose importance will be justified in this piece of research.

The general benefits an organization enjoys from employee training may include the: increased job satisfaction and hence motivation of the employees, increased efficiency and hence output, increased capacity to adopt to knew technology, enhanced ethics, reduced turnover and risk management, these will also be evaluated in this research paper (Martins, 2010).



Problem statement

What are the impacts of training and developing employees on their performance?

The dependent variable in this case will be the workers input in terms of time while the independent variables will be their output in terms of production, sales, service, feed back, risk avoidance, turnover rate, efficiency and motivational factors (Ismael 2009).


Background of the problem

Many organizations have reported losses in form of money and dignity due to problems associated with staffs’ inadequate skills in their operations. This is mostly explicit in safety and risk management areas where staff members, due to little knowledge on risk management, become victims or organizational accidents. Due to the fast rate of technological growth there is need to train workers on how to adopt to new changes for the organization to maintain an optimum production and attain a competitive edge ( Martins, 2010). Work ethics like gender sensitivity, nepotism, harassment and sexual abuse can costs a company great ordeal when reported, so managers find it wise to communicate these issues through training. Most of the machinery and equipment are facing obsolescence due to the introduction of high performance, automated and relatively more efficient ones. A need to train workers on how to use them is then deemed necessary (Ismael 2009).

Research design

Good research will definitely be both qualitative and quantitative.

Data will be collected through questionnaires which will be filled by randomly selected staff members in different organizational levels.

Qualitative data will be encoded and   analyzed by finding their, mean or average, co relations and use of distribution curve.

Expected results

Collected data which will later be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to show deferent relationships between training and development and the workers’ welfare and organizations output. The object of data collection for  staff members  from different organizations from various  levels operational and organizational levels (computer application safety and risk management being  among the important operations) is to show their output in terms of production, sales , feed back, risk avoidance , turnover rate , efficiency and motivational factors( Martins, 2010).

Positive correlation between workers inputs and outputs will therefore mean that training and development of workers has a positive impact on the entire organization whose magnitude will be depicted by positive quantitative results.


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            There are seven major sectors which have greatly contributed to the greenhouse gas emissions and they include the energy supply, forestry, industry, agriculture, transport, residential and commercial buildings and waste and waste water. Green house gas, (GHG) is the kind of gas available in the atmosphere that usually absorbs as well as emits the radiation which is within the range of the thermal infrared. This brings up the greenhouse effect and examples of such gases include the carbon dioxide, ozone, water vapor, methane and the nitrous oxide, (Canadell et al, 2007, page 1). The GHG should be controlled to reduce the adverse effects which could result from their effects.

The effect is due to their effect on the earth’s temperature. Due to the development of many industries in the world especially in the Fremantle city, there has been an increase in the burning of fossils which have contributed to the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Despite the reuptake of carbon dioxide back to the atmosphere during the carbon cycle, other ways such as the burning of coal, wood, oil and natural gases, carbon dioxide levels has greatly increased in the atmosphere, (Canadell et al, 2007, page 1).

GHG could be from many sources such as decomposition processes as the result of microbial activities, methane emissions especially from landfills, decay of the landfill carbon containing substances which are due to chemical and biochemical processes. Carbon dioxide and methane which are GHG contributes to the climate changes as well as global warming. Due to the climatic changes, the there are also the reduction in GHG emissions which later on contributes to the impact of climate change, (UNEP, 2010, page13).

Other causes of increased carbon dioxide are the deforestation as most of the plants retake the carbon dioxide while big and not as compared to the seedlings. Due to this, reforestation is encouraged to ensure that the carbon dioxide level is maintained. Some other sources are the wood, paper and other materials which are incorporated in the waste materials. Such materials use up the carbon dioxide in the plants and the soil after some time and which may affect the carbon dioxide levels in its reduction over a given period of time. This reduction is a best indicator as different consequences of different options are reduced. This would be of help as the severity of the climatic changes will have been reduced, (UNEP, 2010, page 13).

The carbon dioxide levels in Fremantle city are mainly from the consumption of petroleum. In most developing countries, there are some of the industries which use petroleum instead of electricity and in such cases, the pollution and addition of the GHG gasses to the atmosphere is at a high rate. Due to these effects, the Fremantle city has opted for the buying of some of the offsets which are greenhouse friendly in order to reduce the carbon dioxide levels by making the city carbon dioxide neutral, (City of Fremantle, 2009, page 2).

Other sources of the carbon dioxide in the Fremantle city are as a result of business travel where the transport fuels are burning, waste collections, use of domestic gasses and transport fuels. The petroleum generators are also major contributors of the increased levels of carbon dioxide. In the city depot, there are the diesel and petroleum storage tanks which are the major sources of fuel consumed in the city. Some of the offsets the city has been purchasing are the BP Global Choice and the SMRC which has enabled them to get rid of some good amounts of the carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere, (City of Fremantle, 2009, page 2). The city has developed strategies to reduce the emissions which include the residual emission offset, the adoption of clean energy sources, making energy consumption very little as they can and taking measurements on the emissions which has contributes to their success in reducing GHG emissions, (City of Fremantle, 2009, page 1).

The increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide has several effects which include global warming, which is a severe increase in the temperatures. This definitely leads to the destruction of various processes in the environment. The warming brings about the shortening of the world glaciers which lengthens or shortens as per the cooling and the warming trends. The atmospheric temperature is mainly caused or regulated by the sun n and also by the effect of the green house which is mainly caused by the water vapor. The major green house water vapor/gas warms the earth while the minor gases which include the carbon dioxide are of very little effect, (Arthur, 2008, page 1).

On the other hand, the atmospheric carbon dioxide is of great advantage as it nourishes the plants. The higher the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the higher is the rate of growth of the plants. In some cases, the increased temperature which is an effect of the increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also contributes to the increases plant growth. The compositions in which carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere include four gigatons per year. The industrial consumption of such carbon dioxide per annum is eight gigatons which would be through burning of oil, coal, or in the cement production, (Arthur, 2008, page 1).

Another source of carbon dioxide which contributes little to the carbon dioxide amount in the atmosphere is the exhaling and about 0.6 gigatons are released. The ocean surface also contains about 1,000 gigatons where as the vegetation; non-living organic matter and the soil contain 2,000 gigatons. The deep waters contain 38,000 gigatons. In every year, there are specific amounts in which the sources of the carbon dioxide exchanges with the atmosphere. This contributes to the increased carbon dioxide concentration to the atmosphere, (Arthur, 2008, page 2).

The climatic changes due to the increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are due to the effect of increased temperatures. This brings about the effect of the glaciers shortening and increases in the rainfalls especially in the US which has reduced the tornados. The severity of the Atlantic hurricanes has also reduced due to the effect of the increase in the hydrocarbon use. The effect of the green house magnifies the warming of the earth due to the solar effect. The GHG forms a layer in the atmosphere which decreases the terrestrial thermal infrared radiation from escaping to the atmosphere, (Arthur, 2008, page 4).

Increase in the amount of carbon dioxide leads to the increase of the input of the radiative energy to the atmosphere of the earth. There are two hypotheses which describe the response of the atmosphere where it’s believed that due to the amplification of the carbon dioxide by the water vapor it causes increase in temperature but the other hypothesis is that the increase in the carbon dioxide has very slight effect on the temperature changes. These hypotheses are based on the slight increase in the temperature compared to the initial which is usually caused by the carbon dioxide and the magnification of the temperature increase which would be as a result of more water vapor due to evaporation, which is a strong GHG, (Arthur, 2008, page 5).

The factors which has contribute to the increase of the GHG effect due to the industrial processes include the economic problems in some countries especially the developing ones as it is the petroleum which is mainly used as a source of energy which has several effects including pollution. The national networking can be a good solution to this as it can create awareness of the effects of activities such as increases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which would be a method of imparting knowledge to the people, (UNEP, 2010, page 49).

In many places, the people are still using the wood as a source of energy and which has been a contributor of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This could be out of knowledge or on the basis of culture. The result is global warming which would adversely affect the processes in the world. The locals are the most users of wood and also in order to acquire such wood, there would be the cutting down of the trees. This could be based on a society where you find that they are chief producers and distributors of wood to the other societies. They may cut without replacing them and as a result, the carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere is very high affecting the entire region and the world at large, (UNEP, 2010, page 49).

Some people carry out some activities without the enough knowledge like the application of fertilizers in agriculture, which leads to the increased nitrous oxide gas and which is a GHG. This also contributes to the effects of global warming as a result of increased temperatures in the world. Other processes would be the practice of the paddy rice farming, landfill emissions which would be vented and the manure management and the enteric fermentation of the livestock. These processes constitutes to the increase of methane gas in the atmosphere increasing the GHG concentrations, (Canadell et al, 2007, page 2).

The GHG effect is largely contributed to by the water vapor amount. This amount is depended on the climatic cover on the region at given times. With the presence of the clear skies, the water vapor accounts 36%-66% and for the cloudy conditions it accounts for 66%-85%. This is depends on a region and the human activities doesn’t have any effect to it. Since the people have little or no effect on the water vapor, then some regions are very well and if the other methods of reducing the effect if the GHG are considered then the effect would be greatly reduced, (Canadell et al, 2007, page 2).

The major factors which contribute to the increase of the waste release from the industry are mainly the cost. This has been brought upon by the governments which in most countries have been defending the economy of the country from declining or in ear of poverty. The economic concern is given much concern forgetting the social and environmental issues. There are some regulations which have been put forth by various governments in different countries which would fight against such behaviors of neglecting the environment. Changes have then been made both in the industries and in the transport areas renovated to ensure that there is the reduction of the waste release from the vehicles and the entire region is decarbonized, (Bottrill, 2011, page 2).

The other major factor is time which has brought about great contribution to the emission of the GHG gasses in the atmosphere. This is because, there comes sometimes when development has not fully been achieved and it’s in such times when the government relies on the other sources of energy which are of effect to the environment. The generation of a low carbon society is always the best level in which the whole world can enjoy in it. Within a given time the government is able to understand the benefits of keeping the climate clean and from the addition of excess dangerous gasses which could be of adverse effects to the environment. Due to this, the governments have adopted various strategies to deal with these problems and reduce the emissions, (Bottrill, 2011, page 2).

The third factor which has contributed to the increase of the GHG in the atmosphere is the neglect to consider the environment as our own place of living and how we should make it much safer for living. To reduce this, the buildings should be improved and made energy efficient which, buy the renewable electricity and generators which are biodiesel in nature. Hybrid cars can also be adopted especially in the music industries. With these innovations, the country can be better placed and miles away regarding the conservation of the environment from the GHG. These three factors are the most common in our countries and hence the effects, (Bottrill, 2011, page 6).

The three factors the cost, time and the neglect has worked hand in hand in affecting the entire process of GHG emissions. Due to lack of enough funds, the various countries have opted for other sources of energy which includes the burning of coal, use of petroleum oils in generators especially in businesses and also in the transport department. As a result, such countries have led to the increase in the carbon dioxide which is a minor gas to the atmosphere and hence the side effects to the environment such as climate change and global warming, (Bottrill, 2011, page 2).

Whenever such changes have been noticed, at first there is the neglect which then leads to the destruction of organisms as a result of increased temperatures. It could take much time before noticing this and which due to lack of enough funds to cater for it; it takes much time to fix the problem. The result is destruction in the environment with other harmful effects which are as a result of increased GHG in the atmosphere, (Bottrill, 2011, page 3).


            Climate change is a problem which involves collective actions. As a result the approaches to reduce it should be multi strategies and multi factors which collectively can reduce the levels of carbon dioxide in the environment. The various governments should make permanent decisions which would be the way to a healthy and comfortable environment. They should reach out to the people in various societies and create awareness of the carbon dioxide reduction strategies.

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Strategic Human Resource Management

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            Strategic human resource management is a set of actions and decisions that have a long-term effect on the performance of an organization. It assists the companies to meet the needs of employees in promoting the company goals. This brings about both the companies and its aspects which would include the provision of work, giving sick days and ensuring that the employees acquire the information concerning their security bringing some effect to the employees. Such aspects ensure good relation between business managers and the employees in the organization, (Thompson, 2012, page 1). The importance of operational and strategic human resource management.

The strategic human resource also ensures that the employees meet the needs and the requirements of a certain company. By ensuring this balance, the companies which take care of their employees ensure that they work in a conducive environment which contributes to the increase of the companies’ productivity. Thinking about the future in any company contributes to the ability to plan for the employees needs and improve the skills rate of the employees who would wish to continue working in the same company. Retention of employees in any company reduces the costs which would have been spent on hiring and training other employees, (Delaney & Huselid, 2007, page 949)

Operational human resource management involves the ways in which daily issues adhere to the requirements of the employing people legally. It ensures that all the requirements behind all the individuals’ leads to the success of the organization. Operational human resource management ensures that all transactions are carried out effectively in the business and in an orderly manner. It also offers all the support needed by the administration like the giving out contracts on employment and maintenance of the databases, (Delaney& Huselid, 2007, page 150).

The operational human resource is involved in both selection and the recruiting activities in the organizations. The public is usually made aware via advertisements which by reading the draft about the organization. The best criterion is then applied in the selection of the workers. The operational human resource management also ensures that the best discipline is maintained in the organization which ensures that there is a smooth flow of the activities as well as ensuring that there is good conduct between the people in the organization, (Baird, 2010, page 117).

Individual course work is also put in to test where the performance is evaluated and after which the management finds ways of dealing with the employee. They may choose to offer more training and if there is still no improvement, the employment might be terminated. Misconduct is also observed and failure to correct may lead to dismissal or taking of some discipline actions. The operational human resource management is also responsible for the data analysis and providing all the reports to the organization. They analyze the various ways in which they could rate the employees based on the available information concerning them, (Lynne, 2010, page 1).

            The human resource management is the major supporter of the business in all aspects and it should therefore be managed and taken good care of. This facilitates the smooth flow of the business operations which enables the company to achieve its objectives. Success of the company is then assured whenever human resource management operates as required.

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Weapon embargo

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The major aims of the arms embargoes are the effects of their ability in the making of decisions to settle down disputes. The changes they have taken to accomplish their goals involve the trade embargoes, financial sanctions, diplomatic relation severance and travel prohibitions. The people are supposed to comply with their measure to avoid the use of force in ensuring that security is achieved. Due to this, the sanctions provide an important instrument in security when making of decisions. This has been of great help especially when there is some threat of the countries peace, (Damien et al, 2007). This essay will dwell on the dismissal of the black market in the US through the formation of the weapon embargo.

The arms embargoes can be either mandatory or voluntary and which are involved in the UNSC resolution until arms and services are fully supplied. Mandatory are applied in cases where the UNSC resolutions are not allowed to sell or even supply the any equipment, ammunition or services related to this. Arms embargoes generally ensures that there is smooth supply of the weapons to all the groups which are involved in the human rights violations and terrorists and to disapprove the country about the behaviors for such people, (Damien et al, 2007).

There are specific objectives that the UN country wishes that the arm embargoes achieve such as taking control over the threats affecting the entire world security, strengthening the world authority legitimately and managing conflicts to ensure that peaceful settlements are made politically in case of any armed conflict. The armed embargoes have had effects to the targeted persons such as supporting the military in the country, (Neta, 2007).

This has been achieved by being into consensus with the UNSC since due to the lack of this; there could be no implementation of the sanctions. The effectiveness have been contributed to by the existence of arms and the ammunitions, the ability to produce arms domestically in the nation, the easy access to the black as well as white arms market in the country, sanctions which are of great effect to the ability of fund arrangement and the way to acquire the arms and finally the need and the increased demand of the traditional arms. The arms and weapons are of ambiguous group and it should be considered that should also be considered. The transformation of the good by the target nation to create military weapons undermines the arms embargo effectiveness, (Neta, 2007).

The continued sale of the arms by the arms embargo for the Security Council and not the arm companies the business would not be accountable. This is because there are multilateral as well as unilateral sanctions in the UN. These sanctions bound all the UN citizens and they should be followed because of their effectiveness. The unilateral sanctions are easily put into use since they are true moistly when one of the individual wants to block a proposed point or action made by the state. Multilateral sanctions are agreed by all the state members, (Damien et al, 2007).

The arm embargoes are effective in the supply of the arms since they have led to the improvements in various implementation processes in the state. They have also enabled the integrations of most of the forms of measures which are of main target. The reporting system by the experts in the exposure of the transfer of illegal arms has also been improved. Further improvements were the correlation for the arm embargo language with the one contained in the arm export control legislation in the country. This would reduce the formation of penalties at the national level, (Damien et al, 2007).

Clear instructions should also be made on the multiple uses of the items. The implementation should also be improved especially in countries where they don’t have the arm embargoes. Peace keeping forces should also be put into place. In order to achieve the best and greatest effectiveness, there should be the collaboration of the trade, finance, weapon embargoes and other sanctions. This would endure the increased costs of purchasing the arms of the country. The many profits the black arms get are at the cost of the entire world’s security, (Damien et al, 2007).

Arm violation especially in the black markets should be stopped as there are some illegal transfers of the weapons. This promotes criminal activities such as bribery and theft. Drugs are also incorporated in such time which yields the trafficking of the people. The organizations under this such as the terrorists use the profits which are gained from such businesses in the buying of arms as well as funding their activities. Due to this, multilateral embargo should be put on arms to ensure that no dangerous weapons are produced, (Neta, 2007).


            Arms embargoes should be fully supported to ensure that they work effectively. They should also pass instructions to avoid the repeated use of items that is if they are given support by the country and laws that penalize the offenders. These factors would ensure that the arm embargoes performs their work effectively and to their best. Failure to this would lead to the rise of the black market which would not be good for the whole nation.

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Ethical issues and adolescent

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            Ethical issues especially in pharmacotherapy involves aspects such as research, safety, enhancement and information. In some cases it may require the medication if various psychiatry in adolescent. Most of the medications in adolescent has no evidence information on the efficiency and the safety and hence there would no be long term assurance on safety which has been brought about by the lack of good end enough trials in the clinics. Due to this, the governments of different countries have been putting efforts to ensure that medication is labeled especially belonging to the minors. There is the need of having the populations which lack enough ethical research be considered (Koelch, 2008). This essay will therefore assess the impact of adolescent in research.

There have been debates on giving the adolescent the ability to make decisions and which should be used in the research and to provide some agreements. The nurses should be able to understand the issues related to research since they are much involved in it. The debate is about the adolescent possessing extraordinary abilities which can make them make sound decisions and which can be applied and bring out some change in the decision making and carrying out research. This can be contributed by the fact that the youth also need to be treated with some respect by the elder people and the empowerment of the youth would increase the chances of improving their responsibility levels (Koelch, 2008).

Adolescent is the changes which are physically, psychological, and social in the individuals and which are culturally based. Ethical issues would include the reproductive health which is also scientific in that it should be researched to facilitate the scientific understanding specifically in adolescent people. Failure to carry out such research could create some problems as there could be no good understanding on the some reproductive health requirements in the adolescents and which could lead to inadequate service deliverance to the adolescent (WHO, 2012).

Some of the problems belonging to the adolescent are not given a priority and hence the exclusion. Appropriate research should always be conducted to some reproductive health problems which specifically and fully or partially occur in the adolescent and which according to the available knowledge can not be handled. Due to this, it’s the responsibility of the ethical duty of either justice or benefit to carry out research which would be used to deal with such problems (WHO, 2012).

For the adolescent parents, they should ensure that the required preventive and treatment health care is offered to the adolescents which act as their legal and ethical duties. This is usually specific to those adolescents who are dependent. Good research usually enables such guardians to offer such responsibilities which are normally based on legal and ethical basis. Since it’s normal and very true that the parents love their children, it would sound awkward if the same parent can deny them the chance to involve themselves in carrying out sound research which could be of great help in their preventive as well as curative care (WHO, 2012).

It’s illegal for any parent to decide for the adolescents who would wish to participate in research on the reproductive health. This is because in such age, the adolescents are or are about to become sexually active and research would bring about some good risk and benefit ratio.  In some cases, the law doesn’t allow the decision making from people of a certain age but in addition to this the provision should always be given some respect (WHO, 2012).

On the other hand, before any research is undertaken on the adolescent, the information should not at any point be obtained from the adult people in any way. The objective of the research should be to acquire some knowledge which is of help to the health of the adolescent. The correct people of a certain age group should be involved and not any younger or older person. The research should be of help to the people involved and the required changes and steps should be taken for the betterment of the group. The collected information should be kept confident and which is one of the ethical principle (WHO, 2012).


Confidentiality is important since some of the adolescent are sexually active if the research was on reproductive health and others have already carried out abortions and they wouldn’t wish their peers to learn that they have done such things. Failure to this, the research could be not successful as most of the adolescent would not participate on discovering that the information is being disclosed. The institutions carrying out the research should be sensitive to the adolescent and be skilled with the facilities required (WHO, 2012).

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