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managing people and the organization.
The issue of behavior in organizations and the impacts it has on the effectiveness of the organization has raised great concern to managers in recent years. The behaviors of people such as absenteeism reflect negatively towards work. The behavior of people has been found to be affected by vast causes. These causes however remain unknown to managers. The knowledge of the causes of behavior would be useful in the creation of human friendly frameworks in the organization. Genes have been found to cause variations in behavior by scholars like Darwin. The knowledge of the origin of man would aid managers and other practiti0oners in understanding behavior. There are suggestions that research should continue so that more would be known about the influence of genes and how it really works.
The study of behavior is an old concept among psychologists but the role of behavior in organizations has aroused their attention just recently. The realization that people’s behavior towards work is detrimental towards the effectiveness of the organization has forced firms to direct attention on the behavior of their staff. The traditional view of people as just other tools in production is almost gone with firms seeking humanistic approaches to promote the morale of their staff. The behavior of people is affected by a myriad of changes and of the most important is the structure of the organization. Earlier structures like the bureaucratic ones have stepped out to give way to humanistic ones like matrix structures (Hellriegel and Slocum, 2007).
Organizational effectiveness in the organizations of today is teamwork oriented where staff form coalitions which achieve the goals. The coalition activities are coordinated by authority and responsibility bonds determined by the chain of commands in the job. This is what organization really is. The hierarchy, clearly defined aids ensure that there is effectiveness in job performance. People in an organization create the direction of the firm and can lead it to its downfall or to its prosperity. Organizational effectiveness is determined by the design of the system that the staff work and it determines the direction they take.
Behavioral scholars suggest that a firm can adopt a humanistic approach and still achieve effectiveness. It is possible to design systems where the staff works towards achievement of their individual goals while still achieving those of the organization. Effectiveness is the degree to which the firm achieves its goals. The merge of effectiveness and organizational behavior would mean that firms achieve their goals while still being humanistic, allowing the staffs achieve their own.
Organizational behavior has been studied to find its influence on the effectiveness of work. There has been various researches viewing that human behavior in regards to attitudes, reactions and morale reflects on the job performance. Organizations are now turning away from traditional views of humans as just tools for production and adopting more humanistic ways of dealing with their staff. There is however a problem in trying to establish exactly what constitutes a behavior.
Why people behave the way they behave remains a mystery. The Darwin’s theory of natural selection portrays human behavior as an influence of genetic and environmental. The differences in individuals such as extroverts have not been fully defined by previous researches. This research seeks to realize the influence of genes and environmental factors in defining the behavior of a person.
Human behavior has been attributed to a myriad of influences and thence nature and nurture have been linked by scholars of behavior as major constituents of human behavior. Genetics has been found to not be the only thing that dictates behavior making environmental influences important aspects. The Darwinian Theory acknowledges the influence of genetics and environmental factors on behavior and the theory views behavior as going through evolution. In studying behavioral genetics, questions about organizational behavior have found answers.
The level of intelligence, the personalities and attitudes of people form a good basis for the study of organizational behavior in firms. The inclusion of the contribution of genetics of the individuals under study and the environmental factors around them helps inform researchers of behavior and work attitudes and work results/performance. The study of genetics as a component of human behavior would help understand the reasons why people perceive things differently, their differing reactions and morale at work and would also probably help a firm design ways to work harmoniously with people.
The Darwinism theory abhors including genetics in its discussion of human behavior and only as a last resort did Darwin include that there may be other fields that may be open for more research including the origin of man and his history. By this he meant that genetics could shed more light on the behavior of individuals and their performance (Ilies Remus ET Al, 2006). Galton on the other hand acknowledged in his discussion that the behavior of man and his hereditary are linked and it’s of importance to study the origin of man in natural selection.
Darwin later did incorporate the findings of Galton about hereditary in behavior traits and acknowledged that with man the genius ends to be inherited. This then leaves managers in a position where they are no longer in complete ignorance of the causes of variability in the behavior of their staff. Both Galton and Darwin never did find out what transmission occurred or how the transmission worked in the actual sense. Several other studies were done by other scholars of human behavior to understand the concept of heredity and behavior.
In the end, Darwin does agree with Galton that genetics plays a role in variation of behavior as does environmental influences. He does this by quoting the theory and a few insights from Galton. Research has then shown that the genes of a person combined with the environmental influences make the human trait. The researches conducted in the article show that some constructs including cognitive abilities and personalities not forgetting behaviors such as satisfaction at work are influenced by heredity. Further research indicates that attitudes displayed by individuals can be linked to genes and other influences, probably environmental (Ilies Remus ET Al, 2006).
There are further suggestions the influence of genes on the perceptions of the climate of the firm is linked by personality and population factors and maybe also cognitive constructs. There are conflicting suggestions by yet other researchers saying that attitudes and personality cannot be linked to genes, that there lacks evidence to confirm so. Genes have been said at last that they can’t cause behavior by themselves or directly but they encode some data into an individual which consists of adaptive value. The data is then connected to personality which in turn influences personality then behavior.
To answer the query of the relationship between genetics and job satisfaction, a scholar of human behavior suggests that personality, a direct interpretation of genes, makes some people introverts and others extroverts. People who are more outgoing (extroverts) spend moire time in social interactions and thence achieve satisfaction. The study says that the personality of an individual should predict the satisfaction of the person on the job (Ilies Remus ET Al, 2006).
Genes in a trait have only been estimated so that in traits like cognitive abilities, the genes or hereditary material is estimated to be between 0.6 and 0.8. The authors go on to estimate the hereditary material in other traits and behavior like personality. Attitudes like job satisfaction have their data collected from twins grown separately. The results are that there was no genetic effect on job satisfaction or if there was by chance, it was too little. The use of twins to measure the genetic influence of things has been done over and over. Multivariate analysis are used to establish the amount of genes. The researchers have used mediating constructs to identify genetic materials in constructs such as the big 5 factors of personality.
The Darwinism article is important in understanding organizational behavior and work effectiveness. The introduction part of this paper examines the issue of organizational behavior and the quest for managers to understand the concept in order to improve the attitudes of people towards work. That part acknowledges the fact that behavior is influenced by a lot of factors and idealizes that the new wave of business requires that people work in teams. Coalitions are built based on the personalities of individuals meaning that the behaviors of these people have to be studied to establish their personalities.
The Darwinism article says that personalities are influenced by genes. The problem statement addresses the fact that prior researches on behavior have not identified the real reason why people behave and react as they do. It suggests that there is need to research the real causes of certain behaviors.
The article is important in understanding organizational behavior in its suggestions that genes are a factor in the variation of behavior. This argument forms the literature review. There is an argument that Darwin in his theory of natural selection did not acknowledge the influence of genes but that he later did. Researchers in the article argue that genes may or not influence behavior. Genes have been found to be influencers of behavior but in the end, genes couple with environmental factors to define the real behavior of an individual. There are arguments about genes variation of behavior with some researchers refuting to acknowledge the presence of genes in the behaviors.
The concept of heredity is readily explained but the researchers fail to state conclusively how genes are transferred to the individual and how it really works. The research questions are well stated and their interpretation in the article does follow a distinctive order. The statistics port layed however do not rely the exact quantity of genetic material is present in a typical trait. The level or degree of hereditary material in a trait is estimated, statistics that cannot be said to be at all correct.
The knowledge of genetic modification of behavior does solve some mystery about why people behave in different manners. Then materials are not exactly up to date though they do offer insights that are helpful and may aid the organization develop frameworks that work with different calibers of individuals. The article is readable and may be of great assistance not only to managers but to scholars of behavior and researchers of genetics in traits.
The knowledge of the differences between individuals would be important to organizational behavior for the reason that the knowledge would be used to develop models that explain the attitudes of individuals and their behavior towards work. Behavioral genetics may input some insights to the understanding of the behavior of individuals. More research should be dedicated to the study of genetic connections to behavior and if possible, biometric studies involving twins incorporated. This would help understand more what should e known about personality and performance and jobs satisfaction in the end.
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