Annotated Bibliography- MLA style


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SAMPLE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY (MLA STYLE)

Cornell University. Why Major in Sociology? (2011). Retrieved on 16th February 2012 from

www.soc.cornell.edu/undergrad/why_major.html.

The importance of studying sociology is the main concern in this article. Appeal is the first aspect that should be put in mind; one should only study sociology if they find it to be inherently interesting. Sociology is an extremely popular major among many students according to a research conducted by the American Sociological Association. From the year 2007, nearly, 30,000 students receive bachelor’s degrees in sociology each year in the United States. Studies in sociology have evolved and nowadays it is a field that provides a proper training experience for undergraduates. There are many students that pursue sociology in graduate school. Apart from that, there are many careers that are in the field of sociology, from business, education, government and the public service, there are many vacancies for people that have majored in sociology so that they can help in various capacities. A lot of community affairs also seek for people that have a background of sociology.
 

Giddens, Anthony & Griffiths, Simon. Sociology. New York: Polity. (2002).

This fifth edition of Anthony Gidden’s Sociology covers all the core topics of sociology. However, it includes a great amount of informative new material that ensures that students who are learning sociology are up to date with the latest debates and topics that are there in sociology. The book deviates away from the ancient material that was being used to sensitize people on sociology and focuses on present occurrences which students can easily relate to. The focus is mainly on occurrences that are happening in the world presently and relate to sociology. Topics such as global inequity, disability, ageing and the life course together with terrorism. This together with many other topics that are up to date and affect the society in some way are what the focus is all about in this book. The focus is on people who are looking for an exciting and authoritative easy to follow instructions on sociology.

 

McManus, Barbara. Social Class and Public Display. (2009). Retrieved on 16th February

2012 from http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/socialclass.html.

In sociology, there is the issue of social classes and this is what comes into focus in this article. In the Roman Empire, the society was greatly divided into classes with those that formed the upper class being the rich people while the lower class being the poor people. It was always difficult to move from one social class to another. There were a lot of injustices that were associated with being in the lower class. These were mostly the servant and slaves. This is the same case in societies today, the rich people continue enriching themselves at the expense of the poor who are greatly affected and are only used for the benefit of the rich. The article says that sociology comes into place in this situation since it is all about how people relate and treat each other in the society.

 

Sosteric, Michael. The Emotional abuse of our children: Teachers, schools and the

sanctioned violence of our modern institutions. The sociology journal. (2012).

The article is all about emotional abuse that children may go through while in learning institutions and how it may affect their social life. Children may be disturbed by other students or even their teachers. In other institutions like the church, priests, ministers or even reverends may cause some emotional discomfort for children and this will greatly affect how the children interact with other people. Most of the time, the affected child become depressed, has a lower self esteem and social input. In the long run, the child might even become a social deviant as a result of the social disturbance. Therefore, it is the responsibility of every parent to monitor their children’s social behavior and help them if need be.

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Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)


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Voters in Switzerland recently went to the polls on a referendum billed to decide on whether to allow Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS) in that country. Illustrative of how voters in that country value the existence of an option for the terminally ill to end their own lives, voters in that country resoundingly rejected the proposal to ban PAS. Close to 80 percent of the votes cast were in opposition. Here in the U.S, the debate about PAS has been very controversial only the states of Oregon, Washington and Montana allowing the practice. This paper argues that PAS should be a legal option for the terminally ill people.

Opponents of PAS normally take recourse on the fact that the government has a duty to preserve life. That argument is not wrong in situations where the lives that are being preserved are those of a healthy people. One would be the most unreasonable if a policy that allowed healthy people to end their lives were to exist. The analysis becomes markedly different in situations where the lives in question are those of people with terminal illnesses. In most cases, these people often find themselves in situations where they would prefer dying than being in such states. The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S Constitution provides that individuals are guaranteed the right to liberty as well as that to control their lives. The Supreme Court in Roe v Wade interpreted this provision to grant women the right to decide on procuring abortion (Standler, 2005). There is no marked difference between procuring abortion and seeking PAS. People should therefore be given the right to control their own deaths.

The cost of medical care in the country has long been out of reach to many families. These costs are in most cases met by medical insurance. Where such insurance is available, it often happens that not all Americans are able to afford. The situation is made worse when the person in need of care is suffering from a terminal disease. Diseases such as cancer in their advanced stages require expensive treatment options such like chemotherapy. In addition to its exorbitant cost, chemotherapy does not always relieve all the pain that often accompany cancer (Standler, 2005). At a time when getting the appropriate medical care is way beyond the means of most terminally ill, the responsibility to care for them often falls on members of their families. Such responsibilities can sometimes be daunting both financially and otherwise. It even becomes gloomy to the family members knowing that the person they are caring for will never recover. The terminally ill themselves may often not like to see family members endure the suffering.Legalizing PAS would therefore relieve the family members of this responsibility.

Critics of PAS also argue that its legalization may open the floodgates to euthanasia. Now, it should be noted that there is a marked distinction between PAS and euthanasia (Standler, 2005).PAS takes cognizance of the intentions of the patient whose life is to be ended while euthanasia is a general term implying the ending of a life considered not worth living. In that regards, it may be of little use whether the patient actually wants to live or not. This feature has often rendered euthanasia more amenable to abuse. Arguments that legalizing PAS would open room for euthanasia do not however hold. This is so because legalizing something is not the same as simply allowing it in the general term. An appropriate legalization policy can therefore find a way of checking abuses.

Having discussed the first three questions and found that PAS should be legalized, the fourth question becomes moot. Prosecutions are normally reserved for offenses. Prosecuting doctors who have performed PAS does not arise in a situation where the practice has been legalized.

From the foregoing, this paper has made a good case for making PAS a legal option for the terminally ill.

 

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Problems faced by Jews in America and Britain from1880-1920


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In Britain, there were Attempts to close the shelters that hosted the immigrants down by members of the Anglo-Jewish community which led to the establishment of an official Jews’ temporary shelter in Leman Street (Rosen, 2000). The year was 1885 and it was still in then that the Jewish Association for the Protection of Girls and Women was founded to fight for their plights (Wertheimer, 1993). The rising number of Jews caused gentile and communities of Anglo-Jewish origin to call for immigration quotas. in 1900, two Jews, Thomas Dewar and William Evans-Gordon got elected to parliament after campaigns by activists in London. The 1903 aliens act law limited immigration into Britain (Liedkte and Wendehorst, 1999).

In America, these immigrants moved in due to the desire to give their children good education and better life. They could also get luxuries such as modern vehicles like steam engines and trains. There was the USA dream of freedom and gold but the major reason was to escape the Russia anti-Semitism policy and pogroms (Young, 1999). Jewish leaders such as Jacob Schiff campaigned for the Americanization of the Jews. Councils were started to help protect Jewish women and girls until their resettlement. The councils helped house them, maintain their health and employment problems and aided integrate them with the local cultures while still maintaining their Jewish identities (Nor wood and Pollack, 2008).

Problems faced by Jewish immigrants and how they coped with them.

            Jews in the two countries faced similar problems and though America saw them as just other people seeking economic liberty, they did not stay without problems. Both countries imposed strict quotas that limited immigration (Gurock, 1998). For Jews to stay in Britain especially, they were required to pay financial guarantees. It was impossible in both countries for Jews to get jobs and this made it impossible for refugees to migrate. Jews were forced to join the military in Britain where they were not only underpaid but they were exposed to death. The salaries were also not a guarantee (Sorin, 1995).

Jews in both countries were treated like the minority, rarely getting equal opportunities and facing persecution. They decided to bridge these problems by campaigning for positions in the government, socializing with the locals and founding councils that fought for them. They also enrolled their children into schools and found jobs that would liberate them from poverty (Sorin, 1995). The Jews as the Irish Catholics faced religious discrimination. The Brahmin society of Boston for instance comprised of Protestants who wanted to hear nothing of the Jews. To be able to practice their religion, Boston Jews mobilized with the hope that political leaders would appreciate the presence of Semites in the region.

The social- cultural differences between Jews and the people they met were also evident in sport arenas. They were not allowed to join sporting activities with locals. As in Britain, the Jewish leaders in America viewed children as the best tools for acculturation. Community programs were established in an effort to mobilize leisure activities in Jewish immigrant families. These programs also aided the quick adoption of modern habits (Tananbaum, S, 2004).

The other problem faced by immigrants from Russia was the loss of national identity.  They became foreigners upon their arrival to the countries the y moved to. They encountered cultures strange to their own, numerous languages and religions. To bridge this, they made efforts to familiarize themselves with the ways of living of the host countries. They tried to enroll in schools especially their children and started associations that would help them socialize with the locals (Sorin, 1995).

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Globalization of language


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Globalization of language

The term globalization might never have the same meaning to people around the globe. To some, it is the mixture of business, politics and the cultures of people the world round. Globalization is a huge and controversial topic and it refers to the expanding interdependence or interconnectedness among people, institutions and organizations across the globe and the repercussions of that interdependence (Barbara birch (2009). She continues to say that globalization is amoral and is neither good nor bad. That what humans choose to do within it or how their actions affect others can be judged as positive or negative, moral or immoral. Linguists say that globalization has already has a profound effect on our idea of knowledge, broadening our ideas of what it is, who has it, where it’s produced, how and why.  Globalization and the English language have been concluded as interdependent (Viniti, 2010).

It is possible that the world languages are even more than the people who speak them (Nettle and Romaine, 2000:27). They further say that even some linguists are not aware of the many diverse languages. Scholars who have attempted to study languages say there is likelihood that languages that people speak range from between three thousand and  ten thousand (Crystal, (2000:3) . It may seem strange that linguists can’t define the exact number of languages there are in existence. There are attempts to justify the cause for this one such reason being that it is not quite clear as to what really is a dialect or a language.

Whatever is termed officially as language is decided by social studies and political leaders rather than those who understand linguistics. The best examples may be the languages spoken in china, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. The Chinese speak in dialects that are altogether dissimilar to each other. Some are agreeably unintelligible from each other. This is the same case for those spoken by people in the three Scandinavian countries. They sound the same except for a few differences. They are considered as dialects of the same language yet they are like individual languages altogether, Comrie 1990a:2-3). Linguists have also discovered that naming languages poses problems so that some languages don’t have official names which they can be referred by.

The diversities in world languages can be categorized into three to include Phylogenetic, language and structural diversities, (Nettle, 1998:354-5). The diversity that takes into account the number of languages in a region has been referred to as the language diversity. There is a way that languages in a region have similar characteristics and are like belonging to a family and this is what Phylogenetic is.  Language and Phylogenetic diversity are sometimes confused but Nettle says that it is rare to identify areas with many languages and that the languages have similar features. The structure of languages is what is referred to as structural diversity. The structure describes how the order of words in a language or dialect occurs. Languages in the same Phylogenetic category have been found to have different structures.

 

Effects of the globalization of language

The effects of the globalization of language are both positive and negative.  The positive outcomes of globalizing languages are many. People can now communicate easily making business transactions even easier. Business is one of the things that bring interaction and if people are not able to converse in one language when transacting, then business would not happen. In times of war, communication in one language has helped build coalitions. It might be possible that if there was no communication between countries some would have been taken over. The standards of living can also be said to have been raised by the globalization of language. The world organizations such as the World Food Program (WFP) and United Nations have people from different countries unified by one or two languages. One of the negative effects it brings about is the extinction of other languages. The English language for instance dominates over other languages and envelopes indigenous languages. It has long been considered an advantage language and children are forced by their parents to adopt the language or learn another language that is considered dominant, (Barbara,). In the long run, these children can no longer converse in their own native language. This is the first step towards the extinction of the native languages.

The other way by which languages become non- existent through the aid of globalization is through the movement of people to other countries. These people go in search of work and are forced to learn foreign languages in order to be able to work. Their language thence becomes minority and is absorbed by the majority language of work. Endangering languages reflects badly on the people who speak them and also on their cultures. In this effect, the people who lose their cultures show behaviors of withdrawal and dismay at the realization that they can no longer be identified as a group on their own. These people also lose self esteem and may not want to vie for seats in the political arena. This deems it necessary for a people to preserve their dialects and languages. This may be possible despite the issue of globalization.

A country may for instance establish schools where native languages can be taught. This would not only help promote the self esteem of the owners of these languages but it would help promote their national identity. There is need especially for a country like United States to realize and embrace that multilingualism is part of them, that people need to conserve their ethnic pride. Immigration of people into America creates multiculturalism but the need for these people to belong makes them abandon their own languages and cultures to adopt the American way. This is the only way they can get jobs and enroll in schools. The best way to do this is by establishing foreign schools that would help save endangered languages in the country. It would also help promote the diverse cultures in the country as does Brazil.

Conclusion

The importance of English allows it to surpass one use so that it has also become a way of life and a language that can be used around the globe. The keepers of the language have also earned a lot by making it a business. Teaching the language pays a fortune. The demand for English native speakers is amazing. The overly demand for the language is more than what can be delivered so that the Chinese and Arabs hire Indian teachers to coach the language. The use of English in the international level has made the world become a global village so that people can socialize and live in harmony.

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The Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on Auditing


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The Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on Auditing

The Sarbanes –Oxley auditing act was drafted with the aim of protecting investors by seeking to improve the accuracy and the reliance of top management disclosures made to agree with the securities acts. The act created other standards for top level management accountability and penalties for acts against the right auditing measures. The act changes how senior management’s boards and managers interact and also how they relate with the auditors of those allies.

Health South

The Sarbanes-Oxley act was passed at a time when there were numerous cases of scandals in the corporate sector that involved manipulation of accounts. The CEO of Health South, Richard Scrushy was the first executive to be tried under the act and probably the only one to have been convicted. In most cases, the CEO s of companies go Scot free with a lot of money in the form of profits, after their companies pay the court settlements. The health south case was different.  Scrushy started the hospital after years of purchasing hospitals and developing them on behalf of the state of Alabama.

The hospital, health south, had branches in the 50 United States hospitals in twenty years. It was a reputable hospital due to good services extended to customers. The technology in the organization was also quite modern.  It was discovered in 2003 that the hospital had been giving to the public wrong financial statements by manipulating its accounts. Scrushy was sued in March 2003 for manipulation of accounts and consequently overstating them to meet the earning expectations of Wall Street. The CEO faced charges of bribery and accounting frauds. The audit of health south found that the accounting overstatements were nearly $4 billion. It was realized that these frauds went as far back as the 80’s.

The accounting procedures in the firm were described as having been aggressive thence leading to fraud.  The Sarbanes-Oxley act found Richard as the one responsible for the manipulation of accounts and financial reports. The staff of the hospital such as the chief financial officer Aaron Beam and William Owens the internal auditor was indicted. He had joined the firm during its creation and had been its first ever CFO. He helped indict Scrushy by saying that the CEO had ordered the manipulation of the accounts.  Bill, as the internal auditor was called was a close friend of Scrushy and was at the head of the accounting fraud.

The Health South issue before and after the Sarbanes-Oxley Act

The hospital rose from a small organization to be one of the most reputable health facilities throughout the country. It expanded fast through acquisitions and merging with other facilities. Year after year the hospital acquired yet one more thing. It moved from simple health care to surgery and even managed to acquire a surgical health corporation worth over a hundred million dollars. It also acquired a rehabilitation centre and was worth $4.4 billion at its height. The CEO was greatly rewarded for the enormous expansion of the hospital through stock options. The hospital in return suffered losses and he shareholders lost a lot of their investment.

In the after math of the accounting scandal, Scrushy resigned as the CEO of the hospital though remained as the largest shareholder. The firm was also dropped from the listing of the national stock exchange. The hospital started its recovery after 2005 having survived the worst public relations and accounting scandal. The firm managed to escape bankruptcy unlike its colleagues the natural gas trader Enron and the famous World Com.

The employees at health south were demoralized by the accounting fraud but the firm managed to rejuvenate their morale, pacify their bankers and to hold off its bonds. A new management took over and has enabled bring back some of the lost glory. The share prices at health south had fallen drastically but slowly they have risen. Analyze the general impact Sarbanes-Oxley had on the auditing process as a whole.

Impacts of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on the accountants, auditors, and on stakeholders.

The act saw the five fraudsters who were close aides of Scrushy indicted on separate accounts after they were found guilty. The former chief financial officer was sentenced to six months home detention and probation of five years. There was also a fine of $10,000 and a forfeiture of $50,000. The other four were given near similar sentences.  It is said that the failure of the firm’s external auditor Ernest and Young to detect fraud, and continuously passing the financial statements as clean cost the shareholders billions of dollars.

The impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on the accounting processes of the hospital

The auditing processes of the hospital have changed with the management and the previous scandal. The process has become more integrated activity that has an audit of the finance records/statements and of the controls inside the firm. The auditors of the hospital have to attest to the top level mangers’ assessment of the validity of its controls.

The new law has thence modified the financial responsibilities so that the top managers and their staff are obligated to adhere to controls inside the organization and the designed procedures and make sure that the financial records are valid. The auditing act passes that the financial reports in an organization ought to include control reports regarding the internal operations. This is designed to show that the organization and its management have confidence in the reports and to convince that the financial data is accurate.

 

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Drugs impact on life


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Drugs impact on life

The mention of the word drugs gives people a myriad of ideas. To some, its substances of medicinal value prescribed by doctors with the aim of making the sick feel better. To others and probably the majority, drugs are lethal substances that should be kept as far from the youth (Boire and Feeny, 6). It might be true to say that anything that we consume contains drugs at least to some percentage. Caffeine for instance is a drug consumed on the daily in our tea and coffee and others in their tobacco snuffs. Some drugs like marijuana are illegal in most countries around the globe and are termed as recreational as they are aimed at changing the way of thinking or feeling (Rees, 8). Those of curative nature are regarded to as medicinal drugs. There are instances when recreational drugs like marijuana have been found to contain high medicinal value yet it is considered as one of the most lethal substances known ton man (Boire and Feeny,8). Others like morphine which are sued by doctors and are thence of medicinal value have been found to kill in some instances if taken in large doses (Glen R. Hanson Et Al).

When talking about the impacts of drugs therefore, it is important to consider all types of drugs, whether medicinal or illegal or the household substances like glue and aerosols which people inhale to change their feelings. The inhalation of products found at home is referred to as solvent abuse (Rees, 75). There is an estimated two hundred million illegal drug consumers around the world ranging form young people, to singers and people in the media and acting industries. People take these drugs for reasons ranging from depression to financial problems, lack of better role, models in their parents, lack of employment and frustrations (Fish,99). The drugs are taken in the form of powders, pills dried buds smoked as cigarettes, injections, papers as in the case of LSD and in the form of gases which can be inhaled. Drugs have different effects ranging from relaxation and calmness from depressants, alertness and lack of sleep caused by stimulants and distortion of hearing and sight caused by hallucinogens.

The impacts of drugs on the lives of people may be negative or positive depending on the motives for which they are taken. Medicinal drugs taken in the right doses make people feel better while recreational drugs have negative effects no matter the manner in which they are consumed. The aim of taking drugs by most people is not for medicinal purposes hence the constant policing and awareness campaigns against drugs. The negative effects outdo the positive impacts by a large percentage. Drugs are some of the major causes of deaths in the society and have many other social effects (Rees,18). The use of drugs may cause addiction which makes users dependent on the drugs.  The health effects of the use of drugs are what probably cause the society and government to be alert and to work against their use. Thousand of drug users die every year due to overuse bearing the fact that most of these drugs have no prescriptions and hence can be taken as overdoses (Fish, 77).

The western society has people who contract and transmit HIV during drug consumption. There is the danger of a pregnant mother who is a drug users exposing their unborn children to the drugs (Hanson, 99). This in turn leads to mental and physical disabilities when the child is still in the womb. Such children also crave for he drugs and are most likely to become addicts. Drug addicts especially drunks and LCD users are likely to die in road accidents while driving under the influence. Ecstasy leads to lack of sleep and fatigue but may lead to euphoria due to hours or restlessness.  The drug can damage the brain by causing lesions within it which in time lead to loss of memory and other impairments coupled by depression and eventually death. Some drugs have been known to lower immunity and cause destruction of teeth (Rees, 14).

Drugs have long been used as aphrodisiacs to stimulate sexual excitement but then the effect is usually stronger than the one that had been intended.  The aphrodisiac nature of marijuana has been said to vary to users with others been strong and others experiencing the reverse (Hanson, 200). The prolonged use of the drug can cause infertility leading to low sperm count in men and distorted ovulation in women. The use of the drug and also tobacco during pregnancy may lead to still births and even infant death and in some cases premature deaths (Boire and Feeny, 86).

Social impacts of drug use include crime so that people addicted to certain soft or hard drugs will rob money to be able to pay and sustain the habit (Fish, 88). Women and sometimes men turn to social evils like prostitution where they can get money to satisfy their addiction. Gangs selling drugs have fought constantly and sometimes have killed to remain in control as the drug lords and mules.  The cause of many homicides in some cities is drugs. Other social crimes include bribing of people in the political ladders and police who allow trafficking. There are political leaders who have had their campaigns funded by barons (Boire and Feeny, 17). Some police officers are wood by these offenders and end up as their private guards, acting as double agents. In some countries of South America and Africa, rebels have been known to traffic drugs and use the income to sustain the groups.  There are cases where banks are pulled in the trap of drug trafficking so that they cover the tracks of drugs through their services as is the case of some lawyers and judges.

There is connection sometimes between drugs and family disputes. Parents fighting addiction become estranged from their children and family causing disunity. The finances in such families get depleted and these parents may even steal to sustain this vice. The addiction may lead to lose of employment and close friends (Boire and Feeny, 14). Children and partners in such families may run away due to abuse which may be emotional or physical. It is common for drug users to exhibit violence and aggression. Most of the recreational drugs are natural though some are synthetic, manufactured in factories. Those grown naturally like cocaine and marijuana have continually aided in menacing of soils, forest reserves and the animals or species living in the forests and soils. The forests of Amazon is said to be where most of the cocaine is grown while forests in Asia grow opium which is processed to produce heroine. The forests are depleted mainly due to the toxins in the herbicides used on those plants (Hanson, 102-108).

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The role of the strategic human resource manager in a health care facility merger.


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The effective utilization and management of human beings has continually been adopted by organizations due to the realization that it reflects positively on production and the general performance of staff (Salaman, 2005). This realization has made the field of human resources be appreciated as one of those critical (strategic areas) to the performance of the organization.  This has further made people be appreciated as a source of competitive advantage. The human resource managers of today are increasingly participating in the development of strategies in the business cadre while ensuring that the dimensions in human resources are considered (Schuler and Jackson, 2007).

Strategic human resource management is the kind of management that seeks to keep abreast with time and which aims at developing firm oriented strategies that aid and prepare the firm to adapt to the changes in the environment and the pressures that come along with these changes.  The human resource manager as a strategic manager emphasizes the treatment of people as invaluable assets who represent a significant investment in the organization (Salaman, 2005). The idea is to view issues regarding the people on a long term basis and to solve current problems while aiming to curb those that may occur in the future. The strategic issues include the workforce demographics and the effects of shortages in staff on the organization (Schuler and Jackson, 2007). The manager has to address the issue and cite the means to be used to curb such a problem as time goes by.

In a merger, the manager has to ensure that staff in both of the organizations coming together work in an effective way to achieve organizational goals. Merging means coming together of two or more firms, with the aim of pooling together resources and minimizing costs while realizing their goals (Schuler and Jackson, 2007) . Two companies coming together helps pool resources that are important in speeding growth and improving the value of shareholders. Mergers most of the time concentrate on finances and the law leaving out people who are some of the most important assets. It’s not uncommon to find the human resource manager unprepared to deal with the problems that mergers bring along. An acquisition leads to the distortion of the regular working ways of people and ways have to be found to help blend the cultures of the merging companies.

The strategic function of the human resource manager in an acquisition gives them the role of ensuring that the organization has the right supply of staff with the documented skills and knowledge to execute the goals of the firm (Schuler and Jackson, 2007). The managers must therefore have the ability to attract the needed personnel for the jobs in the organization. The function of retention has most of the time been independent from the recruitment function. The two should however be linked for the simple fact that labor turnover is the direct result of poor recruitment systems.

Mergers work differently from the prior individual firms requiring that the managers review and develop the skills of the staff. The capabilities of people in terms of skills and knowledge in the execution of duties is what makes them essential and part of the competitive advantage (Armstrong, 2000). The HR strategic role requires that the staff’s capabilities and competencies are expanded. In order to do so, the required skills must be identified and linked to the goals of the organization or to the activities or the firm. This calls for the joint cooperation between the HR professional and the line operators/managers. The skills possessed by the employees must then undergo assessment to identify gaps. These gaps are what show the training needs of the employees. Training can thence commence. Talent development is important for generating satisfaction from employees and it helps increase motivation (Armstrong, 2000).

Merging laws are different from those of single companies and they are hard to comply with. It’s the duty to aid the organization comply with regulations. The HR manager as a strategic contributor must deliver the services of the function in means that minimize costs and that ensure the laws and regulatory measures are followed (Armstrong, 2000). Compliance with legal measures that regulate costs while delivering services is therefore key to ensuring effective production. There has been enactment of laws over the years at all levels including state and local and at the highest level, national. These laws are revised annually and it’s important that the managers ensure compliance (Schuler and Jackson, 2007). These may include such as equity when engaging staff, extension of leaves either medical or family and complacence with matters regarding health and safety.

A merger is larger, meaning the activities are more meaning that compensation has to be large as well. It’s important to align the compensation systems with the strategic goals of the organization so that regardless of the performance of the firm, staff is rewarded in a competitive manner in accordance to their skill (Salaman, 2005). The level of performance must be attached to the compensation so as to enable the firm maintain the system. Management of performance in a newly acquired merger is called for as performance reflects at the production of firm. The productivity of an organization is a reflection of the performance of the firm. Decline in performance calls for checks in the causes and problems facing the employees hence the lags. The aim of performance management is to help identify the training needs of employees and thence the basis for performance improvement (Armstrong, 2000). There is a tendency to link pay and incentives with performance.

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managing people and the organization.


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managing people and the organization.

Abstract

The issue of behavior in organizations and the impacts it has on the effectiveness of the organization has raised great concern to managers in recent years. The behaviors of people such as absenteeism reflect negatively towards work. The behavior of people has been found to be affected by vast causes. These causes however remain unknown to managers. The knowledge of the causes of behavior would be useful in the creation of human friendly frameworks in the organization. Genes have been found to cause variations in behavior by scholars like Darwin. The knowledge of the origin of man would aid managers and other practiti0oners in understanding behavior. There are suggestions that research should continue so that more would be known about the influence of genes and how it really works.

Introduction

The study of behavior is an old concept among psychologists but the role of behavior in organizations has aroused their attention just recently. The realization that people’s behavior towards work is detrimental towards the effectiveness of the organization has forced firms to direct attention on the behavior of their staff. The traditional view of people as just other tools in production is almost gone with firms seeking humanistic approaches to promote the morale of their staff. The behavior of people is affected by a myriad of changes and of the most important is the structure of the organization. Earlier structures like the bureaucratic ones have stepped out to give way to humanistic ones like matrix structures (Hellriegel and Slocum, 2007).

Organizational effectiveness in the organizations of today is teamwork oriented where staff form coalitions which achieve the goals. The coalition activities are coordinated by authority and responsibility bonds determined by the chain of commands in the job. This is what organization really is. The hierarchy, clearly defined aids ensure that there is effectiveness in job performance. People in an organization create the direction of the firm and can lead it to its downfall or to its prosperity. Organizational effectiveness is determined by the design of the system that the staff work and it determines the direction they take.

Behavioral scholars suggest that a firm can adopt a humanistic approach and still achieve effectiveness. It is possible to design systems where the staff works towards achievement of their individual goals while still achieving those of the organization.  Effectiveness is the degree to which the firm achieves its goals. The merge of effectiveness and organizational behavior would mean that firms achieve their goals while still being humanistic, allowing the staffs achieve their own.

Problem statement

Organizational behavior has been studied to find its influence on the effectiveness of work.  There has been various researches viewing that human behavior in regards to attitudes, reactions and morale reflects on the job performance.  Organizations are now turning away from traditional views of humans as just tools for production and adopting more humanistic ways of dealing with their staff.  There is however a problem in trying to establish exactly what constitutes a behavior.

Why people behave the way they behave remains a mystery.  The Darwin’s theory of natural selection portrays human behavior as an influence of genetic and environmental. The differences in individuals such as extroverts have not been fully defined by previous researches. This research seeks to realize the influence of genes and environmental factors in defining the behavior of a person.

Literature review

Human behavior has been attributed to a myriad of influences and thence nature and nurture have been linked by scholars of behavior as major constituents of human behavior. Genetics has been found to not be the only thing that dictates behavior making environmental influences important aspects. The Darwinian Theory acknowledges the influence of genetics and environmental factors on behavior and the theory views behavior as going through evolution. In studying behavioral genetics, questions about organizational behavior have found answers.

The level of intelligence, the personalities and attitudes of people form a good basis for the study of organizational behavior in firms. The inclusion of the contribution of genetics of the individuals under study and the environmental factors around them helps inform researchers of behavior and work attitudes and work results/performance. The study of genetics as a component of human behavior would help understand the reasons why people perceive things differently, their differing reactions and morale at work and would also probably help a firm design ways to work harmoniously with people.

The Darwinism theory abhors including genetics in its discussion of human behavior and only as a last resort did Darwin include that there may be other fields that may be open for more research including the origin of man and his history. By this he meant that genetics could shed more light on the behavior of individuals and their performance (Ilies Remus ET Al, 2006). Galton on the other hand acknowledged in his discussion that the behavior of man and his hereditary are linked and it’s of importance to study the origin of man in natural selection.

Darwin later did incorporate the findings of Galton about hereditary in behavior traits and acknowledged that with man the genius ends to be inherited. This then leaves managers in a position where they are no longer in complete ignorance of the causes of variability in the behavior of their staff. Both Galton and Darwin never did find out what transmission occurred or how the transmission worked in the actual sense.  Several other studies were done by other scholars of human behavior to understand the concept of heredity and behavior.

In the end, Darwin does agree with Galton that genetics plays a role in variation of behavior as does environmental influences. He does this by quoting the theory and a few insights from Galton. Research has then shown that the genes of a person combined with the environmental influences make the human trait. The researches conducted in the article show that some constructs including cognitive abilities and personalities not forgetting behaviors such as satisfaction at work are influenced by heredity.  Further research indicates that attitudes displayed by individuals can be linked to genes and other influences, probably environmental (Ilies Remus ET Al, 2006).

There are further suggestions the influence of genes on the perceptions of the climate of the firm is linked by personality and population factors and maybe also cognitive constructs. There are conflicting suggestions by yet other researchers saying that attitudes and personality cannot be linked to genes, that there lacks evidence to confirm so. Genes have been said at last that they can’t cause behavior by themselves or directly but they encode some data into an individual which consists of adaptive value.  The data is then connected to personality which in turn influences personality then behavior.

To answer the query of the relationship between genetics and job satisfaction, a scholar of human behavior suggests that personality, a direct interpretation of genes, makes some people introverts and others extroverts. People who are more outgoing (extroverts) spend moire time in social interactions and thence achieve satisfaction. The study says that the personality of an individual should predict the satisfaction of the person on the job (Ilies Remus ET Al, 2006).

Methods

Genes in a trait have only been estimated so that in traits like cognitive abilities, the genes or hereditary material is estimated to be between 0.6 and 0.8. The authors go on to estimate the hereditary material in other traits and behavior like personality. Attitudes like job satisfaction have their data collected from twins grown separately. The results are that there was no genetic effect on job satisfaction or if there was by chance, it was too little. The use of twins to measure the genetic influence of things has been done over and over. Multivariate analysis are used to establish the amount of genes. The researchers have used mediating constructs to identify genetic materials in constructs such as the big 5 factors of personality.

Analysis/critique

The Darwinism article is important in understanding organizational behavior and work effectiveness.  The introduction part of this paper examines the issue of organizational behavior and the quest for managers to understand the concept in order to improve the attitudes of people towards work. That part acknowledges the fact that behavior is influenced by a lot of factors and idealizes that the new wave of business requires that people work in teams. Coalitions are built based on the personalities of individuals meaning that the behaviors of these people have to be studied to establish their personalities.

The Darwinism article says that personalities are influenced by genes. The problem statement addresses the fact that prior researches on behavior have not identified the real reason why people behave and react as they do. It suggests that there is need to research the real causes of certain behaviors.

The article is important in understanding organizational behavior in its suggestions that genes are a factor in the variation of behavior. This argument forms the literature review.  There is an argument that Darwin in his theory of natural selection did not acknowledge the influence of genes but that he later did. Researchers in the article argue that genes may or not influence behavior.  Genes have been found to be influencers of behavior but in the end, genes couple with environmental factors to define the real behavior of an individual. There are arguments about genes variation of behavior with some researchers refuting to acknowledge the presence of genes in the behaviors.

The concept of heredity is readily explained but the researchers fail to state conclusively how genes are transferred to the individual and how it really works. The research questions are well stated and their interpretation in the article does follow a distinctive order. The statistics port layed however do not rely the exact quantity of genetic material is present in a typical trait. The level or degree of hereditary material in a trait is estimated, statistics that cannot be said to be at all correct.

The knowledge of genetic modification of behavior does solve some mystery about why people behave in different manners. Then materials are not exactly up to date though they do offer insights that are helpful and may aid the organization develop frameworks that work with different calibers of individuals. The article is readable and may be of great assistance not only to managers but to scholars of behavior and researchers of genetics in traits.

Conclusions

The knowledge of the differences between individuals would be important to organizational behavior for the reason that the knowledge would be used to develop models that explain the attitudes of individuals and their behavior towards work. Behavioral genetics may input some insights to the understanding of the behavior of individuals. More research should be dedicated to the study of genetic connections to behavior and if possible, biometric studies involving twins incorporated. This would help understand more what should e known about personality and performance and jobs satisfaction in the end.

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What ticks serial killers?


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Serial killers unlike mass killers kill randomly and always escape arrest. They do not want to be caught. The quest that drives serial killers has been of interest to psychologists and people in police departments. It still remains a mystery as to what makes them tick. Some of the killers who have confessed say it is an inners drive, a compelling need to see someone dead. Many a research has shown that these killers had a tormented background so that they at sometime faced parental abuse, physical or mental. Some were adopted and some lived in orphanages. However, it has been found that some grew up in pretty normal backgrounds but are listed to have had isolated childhoods so that they did not want to mingle with their fellow children. There have been other suggested ticks and they are carefully explained in the essay.

According to Scott, (2008), researched statistics show that most serial killers are between the ages of twenty to forty and are mostly white males brought up in lower or middle class family backgrounds (Scott, 2008). It has been discovered that most of these serial killers were tormented emotionally or physically by their parents and that some are not biological kids of the families they were brought up in (were adopted).  Growing up, most of these children exhibit characteristics unique to normal kids such as, the love to torture pets and other small animals, pee in their beds and start fires, and these traits are known as the triad. The insistence is on most but others grew up in privileged homes enjoying the luxuries and the affection of their parents (Kerry, 2008).

They admire law enforcers and may at some point have attempted to join the police force but were denied the chances. They may have been detained even for posing as policemen and impersonating them (Scott, 2008). They choose victims that are not as strong as themselves and most of the time these victims have a stereotypic attachment to the killer. They most probably resemble a person who earlier disappointed the killer. These killers are also said to be sadists and very intelligent (Kerry, 2008).

What drives the serial killer has been widely debated even by the killers themselves. It varies with the common link being the triad. One such killer, Edmund Kemper says that the tick is usually a strong urge that grows stronger when there is an attempt to stop it (Scott, 2008). Some blame their upbringing and some say its pornography. Others say it was prison. There is no similarity in serial killers, and all are not male as says most scholars. There have been found to be younger killers even below the age of twelve and some even as old as fifty and over. Sexual needs are not the drive in all and not all are as bright. There are many drives though not all killers are driven by the same. The urge to kill may be aroused by the desire to revenge or are ticked by illusion. Some killers are driven by lust; the act of killing arouses them. This motive like most others is born during puberty. Criminologists call these killers thrill killers (Ramsland, 2006).

The family background has been said to play a big part in triggering the killer instincts. Harsh parenting has to the society been the answer with people pointing out that the upbringing of the killer would be the cause of his behavior (Scott, 2008). Often, most parents believe that being harsh will make a child tough but this puts gaps in the relationships between the child and parent. The child grows up hating the parents which leads to violent results. It leads to isolation and fantasies that are violent in nature. The kids exercise control and dominion over others upon growing up rather than being passionate. Breakups in the family also tick the killer instinct. The lack of both sets of parents when growing up creates disengagement in the minds and hearts of such children they grow up with an aloofness that triggers fantasies that lead to torture and killing (House, 2011).

The lack of a stable residence has also been found as a trigger with the art of frequent moving out creating disturbance in the minds of people. The movement may result to the killer to be living in environments that are socially ineffective. These people don’t have ample time to form close personal relationships making them lonely. The isolation creates a being that partly hates human beings and likes to see them suffering (House, 2011). Adoption may be one of the motivators of serial crimes. This is because a kid is left with an undermined sense of identity and the biological parents may have left genes that are deviant in the child. The genes may be that of a gangster or a prostitute. The thought that the child was given up for adoption due to rejection may trigger the killer instincts (Ramsland, 2006).

The other tick may be exposure to extreme violence so that such events ignite thirst for blood (Scott, 2008). If a child watched the killing of an animal such as the slaughtering of a cow, they grow up wanting to do that. If a child is tortured in their childhood, they may grow up wanting to torture others. They grow up with the sadistic attitude and they want to watch a victim enduring pain, being brave. Juvenile detention cannot be said to be the best place to reform behavior. It does anything but reform. Though sadistic behaviors in the detentions are now not tolerated, the guards triggered killer instincts through medieval forms of punishment. They beat, tortured and watched inmates being raped in the early 20th century (Ramsland, 2006). These stirred and increased the rage of inmates and when they were released, they tortured and killed. Peer rejection has also been pointed as a tick for serial crimes. Most serial killers were loners as kids, always belittled by their peers and this triggered fantasies which they could rely on.

Serial killers who first rape, torture and then kill their victims are motivated by power and aggression that is generated during puberty (Ramsland, 2006). These sexual fantasies influence the choice of the victim and the approach to use in the killing. The acts may be done in the form of rituals or may be committed out of impulse. The sexually motivated killers who kill out of impulse have no specific preferences and are most of the times not as creative and have less money. They rape and kill out of anger and power. Those who kill in ritual like manners indulge in abnormal sexual acts, have money and have specific sexual preferences (House, 2011).

Conclusion

The fascination that serial killers bring to us has no boundaries and causes us to have the quest to know what makes them tick. There is always the hope that the causes of their behaviors will be found, the factors that make them different from other humans. Unless their categories are set apart, there may never be a clear analysis about the killers. There are those that are sadists and others healthcare. They kill differently with the common behavior being the elusion of detention. They never want to turn themselves in serial killers are people as normal as any other but at one time get a trigger, may it be the memories of a torturous childhood, rage due to present torture, sexual illusions that got stirred from puberty and savage treatment in jail. There are as many causes as there are serial killers.

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Social diversity, sociology and ideologies


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Introduction

Humans are social beings and often coexist in groups of varying types and sizes. The scientific study of the behavior of human beings is called sociology (Giddens, 1986). Man has attempted to study formal and informal groupings including ethnic, racial, family, and religious and gender, his focus being on the pattern of behavior depicted by the society and culture. Some of the groups are marginalized. Social marginalization means the exclusion or lack of participation in activities of economic, civic and social norms. The said norms are those supposed to bring the society together and to govern everyone that belongs to it.

At least every society has a group of people who face discrimination and lack social inclusion in matters affecting the society. There may be a number of reasons for this exclusion ranging from ethnic groupings, beliefs in the group the social class and the languages some of which are considered as inferior or minority. People who are marginalized have very little or even no control over their lives. They thence cannot contribute to the society in any way. They are also not under the protection of the normal legal laws protecting regular people.

Statistics by the United Nations indicate that about 10% of the world population lives with disabilities translating to the possibility that this is the world largest minority. People with disability are at a high risk of facing exclusion from the society. They are excluded from employment opportunities, income and expenditure, schools, housing, health facilities and other social relations (Grant, 2005).

Social theories have been advanced to attempt to give a clear understanding of a disability (Coleman, 1994). The model currently dominates in the research into the plight of the disabled from the context of the society and politics.  It was advanced in the 1970’s by some activists and is currently used as the test of disability politics. Disabled people in Britain use the model to differentiate between policies, laws and ideas that are inadequate from those that are not.

The model takes into accounts the problems faced by the disabled people and attempt to view this group as normal people. It reframes disabilities as the results of interaction and considers the conditions as connected to the people and their choices in life.  The model encourages the disabled to participate in political activities while considering the disabilities as part of them (Coleman, 1994). The theory does not deny the issue disability as a problem but rather tries to locate it someplace in the society. That it does not limit individuals rather it’s the society that fails to hand out the necessary services and ensure that the requirements of disabled people are considered and taken care of in the society.

The elections in the United States often ignore the constituency of the disabled. The 2008 elections saw Disaboom the largest community of people living with disabilities encouraging people vying for presidential seat to post their profiles on their sites so as to promote dialogs and interactions with these marginalized people. This group is also often excluded in discussion of health care issues and the government when budgeting for healthcare tends to over look the high costs associated with caring for the disabled.

The majority of these people may not be able to buy health insurances and must rely on the government and society for aid. Employment opportunities for them are also limited so much that their incomes are also very low (Blundell, 2003. Very few employers seem to want to take in the disabled. They also lack information on the benefits that accrue when hiring such people such as tax credits. Prior to the introduction of MiCASA, the disabled faced institutional bias that made it hard for them to use their Medicaid payments for community based attendant care instead of nursing homes. The government has intervened in the provision of education for this group. Toddlers and youth with disabilities can benefit from this. People with disabilities lack access to higher education primarily due to transport problems, learning technologies and lack of finance (Dell and Power, 2007).

Beliefs about the disabled could be reduced by allowing this group of people to actively participate in normal activities as the regular people. The national sports centre for the disabled was founded in 1970 to impact positively on the lives of people in this group (Woods, 2007). Sports are one way to make them feel as part of the larger society. The inclusion of the disabled in politics would also reduce prejudice and make their representation felt within the government.

Conclusion

Sociology has enabled man understand the others in a better way and hence reduce bias while improving the level of coexistence. Though there are some groups that remain marginalized, the majority have found ways to participate in union in societal norms.  The disabled will always be part of the society and through ways and models to reduce discrimination against them they will feel accepted. The social theory aims at viewing the light of this group and aids the society understand that it is only other groups who would lead this group into thinking they were different.

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